Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from loss of blood. He again proved to be a competent military leader in the Gallic Wars, but his personality caused instability wherever he went. Nevertheless, Antony's military skill kept him close to Caesar at least while Republican resistance was at its height. Finally, both agreed with Octavian the so-called Second Triumvirate 43 a. Antony procured the Gallic provinces for himself, and planned to take his army against Decimus Brutus, one of Caesar's assassins, who was assigned as governor there previously. The martyrdoms at Lyon in 177 were of this nature, and, though it appears that Christian blood flowed more profusely in the reign of Marcus the philosopher than it had before, he was not an initiator of persecution. Pertaining to the family of plebeian origin of the Antonios gens Antonia , Marco Antonio was born in Rome around the year 83 a.
Antony commanded Italy whilst Caesar destroyed Pompey's legions in Spain, and led the reinforcements to Greece, before commanding the right wing of Caesar's armies at Pharsalus. Their legal status remained as it had been under reigned 98—117 and Hadrian: Christians were ipso facto punishable but not to be sought out. Later he participated in the military campaign of Gabinio in 55 a. Through his daughter by Cleopatra, Antony would become ancestor to the royal family of Mauretania. Antony and Cleopatra Antony and Cleopatra, by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema 1883 The Parthian Empire had supported Brutus and Cassius in the civil war, sending forces which fought with them at Philippi; following Antony and Octavian's victory, the Parthians invaded Roman territory, occupying Syria, advancing into Asia Minor and installing Antigonus as puppet king in Judaea to replace the pro-Roman Hyrcanus.
How he came to the throne, however, remains a mystery. The field most to him seems to have been the. These proclamations were known as the Donations of Alexandria and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome. Marcus Antonius was defying the will of the Senate and the Senate, led by Circero, called upon Octavian for support against Antonius. During the between and , Antonius supported the latter.
According to historians like Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering the streets of Rome with his brothers and friends, Publius Clodius Pulcher among them. In July, an embassy from Octavian entered Rome and demanded that he receive the consulship. He, however, found out his mistake, was taken to Cleopatra and died in her arms. Lepidus went on to govern Hispania and the province of Africa. Some days later Paul terrified Felix and Drusilla by speaking to them on chastity and the judgment to come, but in hope of a bribe, Felix kept him in prison for two years, speaking to him often 23. Octavian tried to defuse conflict with Sextus by entering into a marriage with Scribonia, a relative of Sextus.
Marcus used the opportunity to make a tour of pacification and inspection in the East, visiting , , and —where, like Hadrian, he was initiated into the though that religious cult does not seem to have impinged at all upon his philosophical views. He was so influential that he could convince the ruler of the Roman empire to marry his niece and adopt her son. It was probably due to the influence of Pallas that Felix first received a military command and was later made governor of , the northern part of the province of. And sandwiched between them all was the great orator, Marcus Tullius Cicero. The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which of two or more individuals would achieve supreme control of the government, rather than upon an individual in conflict with the Senate. The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration.
In Italy Octavian faced a local war where he intended to grant land for settlement to the soldiers of his army. He was more generally known as Octavian during this period. In 100 Antonius obtained a , because he had fought successfully against the. The ancient sources accuse her of infidelity and disloyalty complicity, in fact, with Avidius Cassius , but the charges are implausible. The Triumvirate was renewed for another five years. Antony and Cleopatra's navy was destroyed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships. He held a command in the in 90.
Whatever conflicts existed between the two men, Antony remained faithful to Caesar at all times. Against all odds, 18 year old Octavian not only survived the power struggle with the politically and militarily experienced Antonius, who was in his forties, but defeated Antonius and went on to reorganize and rule the Roman empire for forty years. Together they embarked on a kind of rebellious and carefree life, frequenting bookmakers, drinking and being involved in amorous scandals. After the death of Caesar, one man in particular stood in the best position to sieze control of unstable Rome. Antony wis defeatit bi Octavian at the naval , an in a brief land battle at.
Octavian sends a military expedition under the command of Agrippa to challenge Antonius' control of Greece. He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt. Caesar's will called for games for the entertainment of the public. Octavian, Antonius and Lepidus agreed to eliminate those Senators and members of the Roman aristocracy whom any one of the three considered a threat to public order. It was to the credit of Marcus, who was intelligent as well as hardworking and serious-minded, that he grew impatient with the unending regime of advanced exercises in and declamation and eagerly embraced the Diatribai Discourses of a religious former slave, , an important philosopher of the school.
Though some speculate that he may have been at least distantly involved in the plot, his behaviour after the murder suggests otherwise. Probably within two weeks following his death, Cleopatra committed suicide. Marco Antonio was the second nephew of Julio César on the part of his mother, Julia, who was a cousin of Julius Caesar. The A more intimate contact with the thoughts pursued by Marcus during the troubling involvements of his reign, though not what would have been historically most valuable, his day-to-day political thoughts, can be acquired by reading the Meditations. However, both consuls were killed, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies. They, along with Lepidus who was the Pontifex Maximus, are designated by the Senate as a Triumvirate with dictatorial powers for five years.