France, which received billions of dollars through the Marshall Plan, similarly saw its average income per person return to almost pre-war level by 1949. While not an entirely new idea, it was never seriously envisioned as a foreign policy until March of 1947 after a presidential address to Congress by Truman. It is chiefly due to the fact that one nation has not only refused to cooperate in the establishment of a just and honorable peace but—even worse—has actively sought to prevent it. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1954 1955 table 1075 p. In his eighteen-minute speech, he stated: I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. As early as September 1946, the American government had quietly prepared programs for military aid for Greece.
The defeat of Germany and Japan left no power in the region to check their still formidable army and the Soviet Union was looking to rebuild at the expense of surrounding countries. Communist Party representatives were urged to give up nationalism in favor of internationalism and were invited to confess their previous mistaken tactics. In May 1946, Czechoslovakia held her first postwar elections. Hogan, The Marshall Plan, p. Although the Eastern Bloc countries except Czechoslovakia had immediately rejected Marshall Plan aid, Eastern Bloc communist parties were blamed for permitting even minor influence by non-communists in their respective countries during the run up to the Marshall Plan.
The Greek government and army showed scarcely any improvement. The last, faint hope of redeeming Eastern Europe through the economic policies of the Marshall Plan had gone aglimmering when Molotov walked out of the Paris Conference. The reaction in Western Europe was enthusiastic. What was the Truman Doctrine? Truman became the 33rd President of the United States following the death of President Franklin D. First, they used existing data to calculate how much a worker produces per hour of work—the average output rate. There would be no progress in Europe without including Germany, and there could be no improvement in Germany without antagonizing the Russians. Greenspan writes in his memoir that Erhard's economic policies were the most important aspect of postwar Western European recovery, even outweighing the contributions of the Marshall Plan.
Still, Truman worried that illegal immigration was a threat to the jobs of both U. Iraq and the International Oil System: Why America Went to War in the Gulf. From Colony to Superpower: U. After the Czech coup, Forrestal set about raising money from his Wall Street friends to create a private clandestine organization to carry out covert actions abroad. The United States was already spending a great deal to help Europe recover.
Kennan had risen in prestige and power in the State Department since the end of the war and Marshall had just named him head of a new Policy Planning Staff. Most noble adventure the Marshall plan and the time when America helped save Europe. Marshall was particularly discouraged after personally meeting with Stalin to explain that the United States could not possibly abandon its position on Germany, while Stalin expressed little interest in a solution to German economic problems. It had to be clear and free of hesitation or double talk. The Europeans could watch local, state, and federal governments work together with citizens in a pluralist society.
He got no immediate response. Truman's own prestige and power had been greatly enhanced by his stunning victory in the. However, opposition against the Marshall Plan was greatly reduced by the shock of the in February 1948. All this aid was separate from the Marshall Plan. Truman and his advisers wanted to meet the Communist challenge wherever it appeared, but except for the atomic bomb they had nothing with which to meet it.
It was during his term as Secretary of State that he planned, campaigned for and carried out the Marshall Plan. The two nations at war were the United States and the Soviet Union. On February 26 Truman, Marshall, and Acheson met to discuss the result of the studies of the experts. The Secretary of the Navy proposed steps to prepare Americans for war. Events now began to rush forward. The Secretary of Labor objected to pulling British chestnuts out of the fire.
Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. . The Truman Doctrine had cleared the way for a massive American aid program to Europe. This caused most Europeans to rely on a 1,500 calorie per day diet. The Truman Doctrine was based on the principle of containing communism where it already existed and not allowing it to spread to neighboring nations like an unstoppable virus. The political effects of the Marshall Plan may have been just as important as the economic ones.