They summarize, evaluate, and analytically interpret primary material, often by offering a personal perspective. If you need to go outside, wear layers of warm clothing. This section is specifically related to United States data sources. Some journals are Open Access and make all their content online for free. It is your responsibility to ensure legibility of your document. Computer-based information systems give access to four different types of database bibliographic, numeric, directories and full-text.
To address the problem of making business decisions and assumptions based on outdated information, specify the date when information is entered and updated in each cell or section of the spreadsheet. Organisations frequently overlook this valuable resource by not beginning their search of secondary sources with an internal audit of sales invoices, orders, inquiries about products not stocked, returns from customers and sales force customer calling sheets. Financial data: An organisation has a great deal of data within its files on the cost of producing, storing, transporting and marketing each of its products and product lines. Reliability The reliability of published statistics may vary over time. Geographical or administrative boundaries may be changed by government, or the basis for stratifying a sample may have altered.
Internal information All organisations generate a substantial amount of information relating to their operation. Some are free and some require an individual subscription. Art: Works by artists such as Pablo Picasso's painting, Three Musicians; or Michelangelo's sculpture, David Social Sciences: Interview transcripts of mentally ill patients; raw, analyzed population data; newspaper articles about events. Secondary data can be extremely useful both in defining the population and in structuring the sample to be taken. For example, a national inventory of chemical emissions from manufacturing plants may not include information about your community because none of the local manufacturers meet the reporting requirements. School systems may register their networks so that no passwords are required when using school computer labs.
The information is compiled and digested into factual representation, so that it does not obviously reflect points of view, critiques or persuasions. It should also be easily manipulated to satisfy the changing and ad hoc requirements of management for information. Most textbook publishers do not make textbooks available as e-books for libraries. Does the information look sensible? It is not unknown, for example, for officials responsible for estimating food shortages to exaggerate figures before sending aid requests to potential donors. The problem is sometimes not so much 'error' but differences in levels of accuracy required by decision makers. In these circumstances, a business may need to commission specific studies in order to acquire the data required to support their marketing strategy. Most members of the community who answer questions try to provide the best and most accurate possible answer to a question that is asked.
Where statistical information is gathered, such as in surveys or polls, the survey data or polling data is the primary source and the conclusions reached from the survey or the results of the poll are secondary sources. Non-scholarly articles about topics of interest within the subject of the magazine. Likewise, unemployment data may be available from a state agency on a statewide basis but a local social service agency may have more accurate information for your community. List all the sources you currently use to obtain that information. Searches of printed secondary data should begin with a consultation of referral sources such as directories, handbooks, indexes, and the like. Why should the reliability of published statistics vary over time? Cursory researches become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Do you need quotations, maps, diary entries, political cartoons, song lyrics, diagrams, narratives, statistics? It is not a comprehensive list of exactly who to contact since this will vary depending on where your community is located. Primary sources are original materials on which other research is based. Scholarly Publication Popular Publication Examples Nature, Cell, Journal of the American Medical Association Time, People, Sports Illustrated, New Yorker, Rolling Stone Author A professional or expert in the field Journalists, students, popular authors, or maybe no author Audience Specialized audience, has a broad knowledge or is able to understand specialized vocabulary presented General Public, or persons with basic vocabulary Advertising Few and highly specialized pertaining to the publication topic High amounts of advertising for a broad range of products Bibliography, Works Cited, Sources References listed at the end of each article, contains footnotes or endnotes Rarely includes references or works cited Indexing Articles are listed in specialized databases and indexes Articles are listed in general databases and indexes Level of Language Higher level of language, more scholarly and serious, vocabulary pertains and relates to discipline Simple, more broad language used to relate to a higher number of people, easier to understand Purpose Discuss and display research, findings, trends and information in a scholarly manner More general interest, current events, gossip Review Policy Peer reviewed. The early stages of the flowchart relate to the relevance of the data to the research objectives. Just like with journals, look for the most recent date in the bibliography, and that should tell you around when the author s were researching and writing. Dillon et al further advise that searches of printed sources of secondary data begin with referral texts such as directories, indexes, handbooks and guides. Then, seek out good information sources.
They work well for both humanities and scientific papers. They tend to be original documents that don't usually describe or analyze work by others. It is one step removed from the original or primary source. Geographical areas may have their boundaries redefined, units of measurement and grades may change and imported goods can be reclassified from time to time for purposes of levying customs and excise duties. Because it has been filtered through many reviewers, it tends to consist of highly reliable and accurate information, plus contain broad perspectives of topics. It may be necessary to contact you to validate that you are the profile owner requesting the removal. Remember that the less local the source of the data, the more generalized the data will be and the less relevant it may be to local community sustainability.
Hint: Librarians are very useful at knowing which kinds of sources can be used to find certain types of information. . On the contrary, assume there are scrolling secondary data that should help provide definition and scope for the primary research effort. The challenge for a business is to capture and use information that is relevant and reliable. It should never be cited in an academic paper. Mintel, Dun and Bradstreet who will produce commercial intelligence reports that can be sold profitably to any interested organisation. Tip: When asking your librarian or teacher, just be sure to be tactful.
Once you have an overview of your topic, first think about what kinds of information you need. The main sources of external secondary sources are 1 government federal, state and local 2 trade associations 3 commercial services 4 national and international institutions. There are so many different types of information on the Internet, it is sometimes difficult to identify what you see on the screen. Information souces can be known as primary or secondary. These sites are usually very reliable and up-to-date.