The function of finding means to single goals, without any concern with the choice between goals, is the exclusively technical sphere. Polar types: Class organized, Class unorganized. Population Policy and Economic Development. Naturally each line of inquiry aids the other and is indispensable, and in the treatment that follows the two will be interwoven, although, because of space limitations, the emphasis will be on the universals. Inequality results because valued social positions are attained not by talent or ability but by force and coercion. On the one hand Marxists hold the view that class antagonism Class Struggle has been the condition and rule of social evolution and on the other hand project the thesis that the future communist society will be a classless and stateless society in which each person will work according to his capacity and get according to his needs.
They must, how- ' Unfortunately, functional importance is difficult to establish. It is indeed wrong to define class on the basis of only the economic factor. In the capitalist society these two classes are: the bourgeoisie which owns the means of production, and the proletariat or the working class which works the means of production and sells his labour for earning the wages. An official can command because he has authority, and the citizen must obey because he is subject to that authority. As between one society and another it seems that the highest general position awarded the priest occurs in the medieval type of social order. This means, in effect, that the position must be high in the social scalemust command great prestige, high salary, ample leisure, and the like. Therefore, the factor of scarcity of personnel does not operate in the technical sense.
Tumin — A Critique of Davis and Moore: importance Tumin questioned the adequacy of their measurement of functional importance of position. On the other hand it also tends to accentuate the high position of the true experts-scientists, engineers, and administrators-by increasing their authority relative to other functionally important positions. When the priest actually has high prestige under these circumstances, it is because he also performs other important functions usually political and medical. Hence every society, no matter how simple or complex, must differentiate persons in terms of both prestige and esteem, and must therefore possess a certain amount of institutionalized inequality. Such adjustments and readjustments are constantly occurring in changing societies; and it is always well to bear in mind that the efficiency of a stratified structure may be affected by the modes of recruitment for positions.
Every element has a function in society. He admits that talent is wasted in all societies. In order to encourage those who are best able to realize these goals it is necessary to offer unequal rewards. Greater rewards create motivation for people in the society to educate themselves. Particular systems of stratification show a wide range with respect to the exact position of technically competent persons.
It is one thing to ask why different positions carry different degrees of prestige, and quite another to ask how certain individuals get into those positions. Any concrete situation is a product of both. The familiar question of the amount of mobility is different from the question of the comparative equality or inequality of rewards posed above, because the two criteria may vary independently up to a point. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 29-30. As a demographer, Davis was internationally recognized for his expertise in growth and resources, the history and theory of international , world , demographic transition and population policy. In such a case it is difficult to prove that the position is functionally important or that the scarcity involved is anything other than extrinsic and accidental. According to kingsley davis and wilbert moore, highly qualified people motivated to enter high-pressure positions because: the positions offer greater rewards- more prestige, pay and benefits a benefit that give you a positional advantage in social hierarchy tend to became a strong motivation for highly qualified people to handle high-pressure positions.
First, the Davis-Moore thesis does not suggest what reward a society should give to any given job or how unequal the wealth should be distributed. Third, people need money in order to trade goods and services even in an egalitarian society. One thing that can lose its value in an egalitarian society is the quality of work. Those who believe in stratification believe in common values. Thus, in most complex societies the religious, political, economic, and educational functions are handled by distinct structures not easily interchangeable.
Actually a society does not need to reward positions in proportion to their functional importance. Some alternatives are joy in work, social service and self-interest. When the matter is closely examined the urban proletariat, as well as the rural citizenry, proves to be suprisingly god-fearing and priest-ridden. Davis and Moore: The Functionalist Perspective Sociologists Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore believed that stratification serves an important function in society. The reason why religion is necessary is apparently to be found in the fact that human society achieves its unity primarily through the possession by its members of certain ultimate values and ends in common. Modem medicine, for example, is within the mental capacity of most individuals, but a medical education is so burdensome and expensive that virtually none would undertake it if the position of the M. He was also one of the original scholars in the development of the theory of.
Tumin has argued that different societies give importance to different rewards. Methods of recruitment, as well as of reward, sometimes lead to the erroneous interpretation that technical positions are economically determined. In general when emphasis is put on sacred matters, a rigidity is introduced that tends to limit specialization and hence the development of technology. Davis and Moore's argument is based on the functionalist premiss that rests on consensual values which define collective goals that are in the general interest. Presumably such possession is a reward for the proper management of one's finances originally and of the productive enterprise later. If a position is easily filled, it need not be heavily rewarded, even though important.
Marxian theory of stratification can be divided into five propositions: 1. The control of the avenues of training may inhere as a sort of property right in certain families or classes, giving them power and prestige in consequence. Conflict Theory of Social Stratification : The Conflict Theory takes a different view of society. The factors that prevent this are worthy of note. A chronic state of warfare tends to place emphasis upon the military functions, especially when the opponents are more or less equal.
Population and Resources in a Changing World. The present discussion has been offered as a possible approach to the more systematic classification of composite types. It is for this reason, doubtless, that the institution of private property in productive goods becomes more subject to criticism as social development proceeds toward industrialization. They approach the problem of social inequality from the functionalist perspective and generally follow Talcott Parsons. This was followed by a period at the before moving to the where he stayed until his retirement.