Can you draw a flow-chart? U6 Different methods of membrane transport are required to absorb different nutrients. S1 Production of an annotated diagram of the digestive system. For example, large polypeptides are broken up into their amino acids, which are then used to build up new proteins. Sign up Already a StudyStack user? Fatty acids, cholesterol and many such insoluble substances make loose compounds with desoxycholic acid. He explains how all of the major macromolecules are digested and absorbed by the body. Order: absorption must happen before assimilation.
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key. They would not be able to pass through the cell membranes to get into the bloodstream. The end result of the churning is that the food becomes semi-liquid chyme. U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine. Also, the villi contains an epithelial layer which is only one cell layer thick so that food can pass through easily and be absorbed quickly.
The firstexample has been done for you. Due to this the process of digestion is quickened. This occurs in the small intestine which has many villi that are specialised for absorption. U1 The contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle of the small intestine mixes the food with enzymes and moves it along the gut. In addition the villi also have their own projections which are called microvilli. U4 Villi increase the surface area of epithelium over which absorption is carried out. These microvilli have protein channels and pumps in their membranes to allow the rapid absorption of food by facilitated diffusion and active transport.
U3 Enzymes digest most macromolecules in food into monomers in the small intestine. What is the role of enzymes in digestion? Although it does not contain any enzyme, yet, it acts as a very important digestive juice. This process increases the surface area and exposes the head of the glycerol molecule to allow the enzymes to act on it. Enzyme activity animations from , and A great from kitses. Firstly, the food we eat is made up of many compounds made by other organisms which are not all suitable for human tissues and therefore these have to be broken down and reassembled so that our bodies can use them.
The first section is the duodenum where the chyme is mixed with bile to lower the pH, then with pancreatic juices containing enzymes for the digestion of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Glucose Since glucose has many hydroxyl groups it is a polar molecule and cannot pass through the cell membrane by simple diffusion and therefore relies on different types of facilitated diffusion in order to move into and out of the epithelial cells of the villi. Predict what will happen to the glucose and starch after 15 minutes. Some mammals digest with the help of sym bacteria in the gut. They are secreted for the hydrolysis of large polymers. The structure of the villus is related to its role in the absorption and the transport of the products of digestion. Our aim is to improve international education by developing products in close collaboration with professional authors and leaders in the field.
Regurgitation of Bile: Regurgitation of bile in the stomach helps to neutralise gastric acidity and thus prevents the injurious effect of acids on gastric mucosa. If a cannula is inserted in the common bile duct and all bile is collected outside, it is seen that the dog develops various abnormalities of bone, anaemia, lack of nutrition and eventually dies Whipple. Food needs to be broken down and reassembled. Cause Methodsof transmission Social implications 22. After class,go back and review them. Ethical discussion:Whatare the ethical considerationsof enforcedvaccinationprogrammes? An electron micrograph at very higher magnification: the microvilli on the surface of a single villus can be seen, they further increase the surface area available for absorption. Describe the industrial processof monoclonal antibodyproduction.
A1 Processes occurring in the small intestine that result in the digestion of starch and transport of the products of digestion to the liver. Pancreatic juice flows through the pancreatic duct into the lumen of the small intestine 6. Outline the role of skinandmucousmembranesinprimarydefense actingasbarriersagainst pathogens : Skinisa toughbarrier Hairs,e. Now add the annotations to show what happens in digestion. Refer to B-cells, tumoursand hybridomas. They are absorbed from intestine, carried to liver and stimulate further bile secretion. Cholesterol and lecithin are probably chiefly excretory products.
Therefore, absorption is followed by assimilation. The following things are absorbed with the help of bile: i. The structure of the villus is very specific. Link thought: antibodiesareglobularproteinsproduced by lymphocytes. This is why enzymes are vital as they speed up this process by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur and they do so at body temperature. The pH of the stomach is about 1.