The firms were selected from a trade association database containing entirely firm-reported information. On the basis of the responses, the computer assigns the code number to the part. This system was developed by H. This might seem like too many digits fur a human reader to easily comprehend, but it must be remembered that most of the data processing of the codes is accomplished by computer. The entire ranges of items have first to be classified under a broad class. Product design advantages are gained when design engineers retrieve existing drawings to support new products and when features are standardized to prevent part proliferation.
The consulting firm's installation experience was investigated, with previous customers providing payback and operational data. The first digit identifies whether the part is rotational or nonrotational. Company D, due to its in-house system, is an exception here. Speedy part retrieval is still considered a major benefit. A related managerial issue is that of providing particular incentives so that the system is used, and disincentives so that the older methods are not used. While the design and manufacturing attributes of a part are usually correlated, the correlation is less than perfect. A Dash or stroke is put against the main element of the material in order to code the material in the same group.
A code is a string of alphanumeric characters which, when interpreted, provides information about that part. Alphabets are allotted to an item according to its initials or abbreviation. Manufacturing efficiencies are gained from reduced set-up times, part family scheduling, improved process control, standardized process plans, standardized instructions, group layouts, higher quality, and in general, increased learning. Major system benefits have changed over time. Accordingly, classification and coding systems are devised to include both a part's design attributes and its manufacturing attributes.
For example, it might indicate the overall length of the part. This system was pushed top-down. In the application of the system, a series of menus, pick lists, tables, and other interactive prompting routines are used to code the part. Savings data, stated in percentages, were generated from trade and academic literature and industry technical reports. Decimal Codification: Under this system of codification, within the range often numerals 0-9, some significance is attached to every digit in the code. Further classification will follow some group patterns, according to their particular nature. Much of the required information is located in a historical database subsidiary to the primary parts production database.
. One unexpected benefit arose : customer service for non-stocked parts has improved because Company D could find and rework a stocked part from the same part family similar examples are provided in Hyer and Wemmerlov 1989. International Journal of Production Research, 9, 181-203. These firms belonged to the two-digit standard industrial classification Sl ' code categories of 25 and 34-39, covering furniture and fixtures, fabricated metal products, all types of machinery, transportation equipment, engineering and medical instruments and miscellaneous other manufacturing. Group technology and classification systems Group technology principles may be applied to any conceivable entity ranging from manufactured parts and capital equipment to decision processes and human characteristics Wemmerlov and Hyer 1992, Gallagher and Knight 1986.
Integrating Design and Manufacturing for Competitive Advantage, edited by Gerald I. The coding structures in common use are typically multi-digit, faceted systems that identify group and characterize components by finish, size, material, machining and other characteristics and process requirements. The materials are first grouped under some main classes and then it allows sub grouping under numbering system. In 6 months, 900 h of engineering and drafting time were avoided. The advantage of the hierarchical structure is that in general.
Suppose the first digit stands for the general shape of the part: 1 means the part is cylindrical rotational , and 2 means the geometry is rectangular. Original system objectives were to assist in design retrieval and part standardization. The examination is sometimes done by looking in tables to match the subject part against the features described and diagrammed in the tables. For example, if a bolt is listed under hardware category and can be availed from hardware vendors, it is considered a hardware item. Whichever method is used, the classification results in a code number that uniquely identifies the part's attributes. Further sub-divisions will follow for type, size, grade, shape, condition etc. Again with the exception of Company F, and Company B for which data were not available, all companies have tens of thousands of, and up to hundreds of thousands of, active part numbers these figures are similar to those found in Hyer and Wemmerlov 1989.
Since firms have different information needs and there are different uses of codes at various stages of production, these discrepancies are likely due to the different composition of the company samples in the two studies. Part proliferation is a major problem for Company A. The part code for a new part can be used to search for process plans for existing parts with identical or similar codes Machine cell design. Company B's diminished management support apparently as a result of a merger led to lower staffing levels and reduced system effectiveness. This high cost of data capture and lack of immediate tangible payback led to further postponement of manufacturing parts coding. Show all authors Abstract: Group technology has become an important and viable approach to manufacturing systems, and provides significant benefits in inventory management, production process flow, throughput efficiency, tooling, and purchasing. Furthermore, 1000 new designs were being added each month.